by Linda Brown, PhD, Rita J. Sherbenou, PhD, and Susan K. Johnsen, PhD
Time: 15-20 minutes
The TONI-4 is a practical, easy-to-use, norm-referenced instrument that measures an individual's intelligence. The administration and response format are pragmatic, with simple oral instructions requiring test takers to answer with simple but meaningful gestures such as pointing, nodding, or blinking. This test is ideal for those who have language, hearing, or motor impairments or are not familiar with mainstream US/UK culture.
The TONI-4 has two equivalent forms: Form A and Form B. Each form consists of 60 items, all of which are abstract/figural (i.e., void of pictures or cultural symbols—thus, educational, cultural, or experiential backgrounds will not adversely affect test results. All items are arranged in easy-to-difficult order. Each item contains one or more of the eight salient characteristics: shape, position, direction, rotation, contiguity, shading, size, and movement. Easier items contain one or two characteristics, whereas more difficult items contain several characteristics. Both forms can also be used for research purposes and periodic reevaluation.
- All new normative data were collected to ensure proper representation of demographic changes in the U.S. population. The normative sample consisted of 2,272 people residing in 33 states.
- An analysis of potential bias in test items related to gender, ethnicity, disability, and race is included.
- Additional evidence of test reliability and validity is offered for the entire normative sample and for specific subgroups of the sample to account for cognitive ability, race, ethnicity, and gender.
- Floor effects have been eliminated.
- Verbal and pantomime directions are provided.
- In addition to English, instructions are included in seven other major foreign languages: Spanish, French, German, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, and Tagalo