Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD, Nils A. Pearson, PhD, Judith K. Voress
Especially useful in the evaluation of the neuropsychological integrity of TBI and stroke patients where right-hemisphere function may be at issue. Normed to age 75, the DTVP-A has easy items to allow accurate assessment of individuals with severe TBI and other neurologically impaired individuals.
Qualification Level: C (Occupational Therapist)
Purpose: Measure visual-perceptual and visual-motor abilities
Age Range: 11 through to 74.11 yrs
Time: 25 minutes
Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3
Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (Non-motor), 3rd Ed.
The DTVP-A is a battery of six subtests that measure different but interrelated visual-perceptual and visual-motor abilities. The DTVP-A subtests include: Copying, Figure-Ground, Visual-Motor Search, Visual Closure, Visual-Motor Speed, and Form Constancy.
The battery, which can be administered by psychologists, neuropsychologists, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and diagnosticians who are interested in examining the visual-perceptual status and visual-motor integration skills of adolescents and adults ages 11.0-74.11 years, has empirically established reliability and validity. The normative sample included 1,664 adolescents and adults residing in 19 states; demographic characteristics approximate the current census data. Administration is individual and takes approximately 25 minutes.
The DTVP-A is especially useful in the evaluation of the neuropsychological integrity of TBI and stroke patients where right-hemisphere function may be at issue. Normed through age 75 years, the DTVP-A has sufficient floor (or easy items) to allow accurate assessment of individuals with severe TBI and other neurologically impaired individuals. The reliability of the various subtest and index scores indicates that the DTVP-A will be sensitive to improvement over the course of treatment. The subtest and index scores also will suggest areas of emphasis in cognitive and fine motor rehabilitation.
The DTVP-A is particularly useful in distinguishing true visual-perceptual deficits from problems solely with complex eye-hand or perceptual-motor actions. The DTVP-A may also assist in differential diagnosis of the various dementias in elderly patients, providing a baseline for normal aging changes in perception and perceptual-motor skills against which the referred patient may be referenced.
Composite Scores or Indexes:
The most reliable scores for the DTVP-A are the indexes. These scores are found by adding the standard scores of the subtests that comprise a composite and converting the sum to an index.
- General Visual-Perceptual Index: The GVPI is the best measure of what the majority of people mean when they say 'visual perception.' Data from six subtests, each of which measures a different type of visual perception in a different manner, contribute to the GVPI. When GVPIs are below 90, examiners need to pay more attention to the two clinically relevant indexes-the Motor-Reduced Visual Perceptual Index (MRVPI) and the Visual-Motor Integration Index (VMII). Examination of these indexes may help explain the causes for low GVPI scores.
- Motor-Reduced Visual Perception Index: Of all of the DTVP-A indexes, the MRVPI is the 'purest' and most direct measure of visual perception, in that only minimal motor skills (e.g., pointing) are required to show perceptual competence. This index is formed by combining the standard scores from the Figure-Ground, Visual Closure, and Form Constancy subtests.
- Visual-Motor Integration Index: To do well on this composite, individuals must perform complex eye-hand coordination tasks. Low scores do not necessarily indicate poor visual perception; they may mean that the individuals have awkward hand movements or that they have difficulty coordinating hand-to-eye movements. This index is formed by combining the standard scores of the Copying, Visual-Motor Search, and Visual-Motor Speed subtests.
Special Features of the DTVP-A
- Subtests were developed to be appropriate for adolescents and adults.
- The normative sample reflects the current population characteristics of the United States relative to race, ethnicity, gender, geographic region, parent education, and income.
- Internal consistency, stability, and interscorer reliability for all indexes are high.
- Validity evidence shows that all DTVP-A subtests and indexes are useful for measuring visual-perceptual and visual-motor integration skills.
- Evidence is provided to show that the test is unbiased with respect to gender and race.