by Donald D. Hammill, EdD, Nils A. Pearson, PhD, Judith K. Voress
The DTVP-3 is the most recent revision of Marianne Frostig’s popular Developmental Test of Visual Perception. Of all the tests of visual perception and visual-motor integration, the DTVP-3 is unique in that its scores are reliable at the .80 level or above for all subtests and .90 or above for the composites for all age groups; its scores are validated by many studies; its norms are based on a large (N = 1,035), representative sample; it yields scores for both visual perception (no motor response) and visual-motor integration ability; and it is shown to be unbiased relative to race, gender, and handedness.
New Features of the DTVP-3
- New normative data were collected in 2010 and 2011
- Norms were extended upward to age 12 years, 11 months
- The composite scores have no floor or ceiling effects
- Numerous eligibility and validity studies, including studies of the test’s sensitivity, specificity, and ROC/AUC, have been provided
- The study of item bias has been expanded
- The overall look of the test was updated
The DTVP-3 has five subtests.
1. Eye-Hand Coordination. Children are required to draw precise straight or curved lines in accordance with visual boundaries.
2. Copying. Children are shown a simple figure and asked to draw it on a piece of paper. The figure serves as a model for the drawing. Subsequent figures are increasingly complex.
3. Figure-Ground. Children are shown stimulus figures and asked to find as many of the figures as they can on a page where the figures are hidden in a complex, confusing background.
4. Visual Closure. Children are shown a stimulus figure and asked to select the exact figure from a series of figures that have been incompletely drawn. In order to complete the match, children have to mentally supply the missing parts of the figures in the series.
5. Form Constancy. Children are shown a stimulus figure and asked to find it in a series of figures. The targeted figure will have a different size, position, and/or shade, and it may be hidden in a distracting background.
The results of the five DTVP-3 subtests are combined to form three composites: Motor-reduced Visual Perception, Visual-Motor Integration, and General Visual Perception (combination of motor-reduced and motor-enhanced subtests). Subtests were assigned to a particular composite on the basis of the amount of motor ability required by their formats.