By Cecil Reynolds • Nils Pearson • Judy Voress
Purpose: Measures visual-perception and visual-motor ability
Age: 11 through 79 years
Time: 20 to 30 minutes
Scoring: Online Only
Qualification Level: C (Occupational Therapist)
The Developmental Test of Visual Perception–Adolescent and Adult: Second Edition (DTVP-A:2) is a well-researched, norm-referenced measure of general visual-perceptual skills. The DTVP-A:2 was designed to measure visual-perception and visual-motor abilities in individuals ages 11-0 through 79-11. The DTVP-A:2 provides practitioners with valid and reliable scores that measure adolescent and adult strengths and weaknesses in important areas of visual perception. In particular, it enables examiners to make comparisons between visual perceptual, visual-motor, and visual-motor efficiency skills. The Online Scoring and Report System included in the kit allows the examiner to enter the examinee’s subtest raw scores and quickly generate Standard Summary and Detailed Narrative reports that include standard scores, percentiles, and intra-individual comparisons; the reports can be edited, printed, or saved, and results copied into your personalized report as needed.
DTVP-A: 2 Scores
The DTVP-A:2 has seven subtests that measure different but interrelated visual-perceptual and visual-motor abilities along with four index scores. The test provides standard scores with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15 for the four composite index scores.
General Visual Perceptual Index (GVP)—The GVP is the best measure of what the majority of people mean when they say “visual perception.” It consists of information about visual-perceptual ability derived from three types of testing formats (i.e., visual-motor integration, motor-reduced formats, and visual-motor efficiency). Data from seven subtests—each of which measures a different type of visual perception in a different manner—contribute to the GVP.
Motor-Reduced Visual Perception Index (MRP)—The MRP is the “purest” and most direct measure of visual perception, in that only minimal motor skills (e.g., pointing) are required to show perceptual competence.
Visual-Motor Integration Index (VMI)—The VMI measures visual-perceptual skills by assessing an individual’s skills in performing complex eye–hand coordination tasks.
Visual-Motor Efficiency Index (VME)—The VME is a measure of individuals’ speed and accuracy in combining their visual perception of the field designated for performing the task and their ability to scan and search the field while performing what are simple but refined fine-motor movements.
The seven subtests measure specific content and skills and provide scaled scores with a mean of 10 and standard deviation of 3.
1. Eye–Hand Coordination measures the ability to integrate eye–hand movement.
2. Form Constancy measures the ability to match two figures that vary in one or more discriminating features (i.e., size, position, or shade).
3. Copying measures the ability to recognize the features of a design and to draw it from a model, assessing in large part what is commonly thought of as visual-motor integration skills.
4. Visual Closure measures the ability to recognize a stimulus figure when it has been incompletely drawn, which requires good visualization or mental imaging skills, or seeing the gestalt.
5. Visual-Motor Search measures the ability to draw lines rapidly connecting numbered shapes in the correct order, engaging good visual search and sequencing skills that are integrated with motor skills.
6. Visual-Motor Speed measures the ability to make certain marks in specific designs rapidly and accurately.
7. Figure–Ground measures the ability to see specified figures when they are hidden in complex and confusing backgrounds.
The DTVP-A: 2 has six components:
Examiner’s Manual—This component provides descriptive information about the DTVP-A: 2, important information about how to give and score the test, and descriptions of the test’s technical characteristics (i.e., demographic characteristics of the normative sample, reliability, and validity).
Picture Book—The Picture Book contains the items for the Form Constancy, Visual Closure, and Figure–Ground subtests.
Response Booklet—This booklet contains the items and space for the examinee’s responses for the Eye–Hand Coordination, Copying, Visual-Motor Search, and Visual-Motor Speed subtests.
Examiner Record Form—This form provides space for the examiner to report pertinent biographical information about the examinee and examiner and to record examinee performance on the test. Complete administration and scoring instructions are provided in the form for the examiner’s convenience.
Copying Subtest Scoring Template—This transparent template is used to score the Copying subtest.
DTVP-A:2 Online Scoring and Report System—The DTVP-A:2 Online Scoring and Report System allows for both item-level and subtest total-raw-score data entry. It quickly calculates and reports all scores. Standard Summary and Detailed Narrative Reports can be generated for editing, printing, or saving.
The DTVP-A:2 was standardized using a group of 1,482 adolescents and adults that closely represent the population of the United States. The 7-subtest General Visual Perceptual Index reliability is .95 with the other index reliabilities ranging from .91 to .94. Internal consistency, test–retest, and scorer reliability studies were conducted. Types of validity reported include content-description, criterion-prediction, and construct-identification. Validity with special populations, including persons with learning disabilities, gifted and talented, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, traumatic brain injury, and cerebrovascular accident, is reported. Special attention was paid to making the DTVP-A:2 fair for minority groups. Validity evidence reported in the Examiner’s Manual demonstrates the test’s value for assessment of diverse groups of persons.
The Examiner’s Manual provides methods for interpretation of scores. It explains how to examine the DTVP-A:2 indexes and analyze subtests. To determine intra-individual differences, the Online Scoring and Report System evaluates the significance of the differences between the four index standard scores. It also provides similar comparisons to evaluate the significance of differences between scaled scores for each subtest. Actuarial values are included. The Online Scoring and Report System calculates all the standard scores, percentiles, index comparisons, and subtest comparisons, and yields a detailed narrative report that can be edited by the examiner.