by Donald D. Hammill and Stephen C. Larsen
Purpose: Measure writing competence
Age: 9 to 17 years
Admin: Individual or group
Time: 60-90 minutes
Qualification Level: B
This comprehensive, norm-referenced test of written expression is now available in a fully updated Fourth Edition. The TOWL-4 can be used to:
Identify students who write poorly and need special help
Determine writing strengths and weaknesses
Document progress in special writing programmes
Like the previous edition, the TOWL-4 assesses the conventional, linguistic, and conceptual aspects of writing. It includes seven subtests---five using contrived formats and two requiring spontaneous writing samples.
- Writing sentences that incorporate given stimulus words
- Writing sentences from dictation, making proper use of spelling rules
- Writing sentences from dictation, making proper use of punctuation and capitalisation rules
- Logical Sentences
- Editing illogical sentences so that they make better sense
- Sentence Combining
- Integrating the meaning of short sentences into single, grammatically correct sentences
- Contextual Conventions
- Writing a story in response to a stimulus picture and earning points for satisfying specific orthographic and grammatical requirements
- Story Composition
- Writing a story that is evaluated for vocabulary, plot, prose, character development, and interest to the reader
Individually administered in 60 to 90 minutes, the TOWL-4 can be used with students aged 9-0 to 17-11. Equivalent forms (A and B) are available to simplify pre- and post - testing.
The test provides percentiles, standard scores, age equivalents, and grade equivalents for each subtest. In addition, three Composite Scores are available: Overall Writing, Contrived Writing, and Spontaneous Writing. Norms, based on an age- and grade-stratified sample of 2,505 individuals from 18 states, reflect the demographic characteristics of the U.S. population.
Studies reported in the Manual document the predictive validity of the TOWL-4 and demonstrate that the test is unbiased relative to gender and race. The TOWL-4 is extremely helpful to professionals who assess and treat writing deficits.