By Donald D. Hammill, J.Lee Wiederholt, ans Elizabeth A Allen
- Ideal for universal screening and progress monitoring.
- Four equivalent forms measure reading comprehension and general reading ability.
- Normed on school- and university -age students.
- Three minutes to administer to individuals or groups.
- Minimal false positives and false negatives.
Purpose: Measures reading comprehension and general reading ability
Ages: 7-0 to 24-11yrs
Time: 3 minutes for a single form or 6 minutes for any two forms
Admin: Group or individual
Qualification Level: B (Specialist Teacher)
The new Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency–Second Edition (TOSCRF-2) is a measure of reading comprehension and general reading ability that (a) can be administered to individuals or groups in a brief period of time, (b) is cost-effective, and (c) is highly reliable and valid. Since its publication initial publication in 2006, the TOSCRF has been popular with professionals in psychology, education, and reading.
The TOSCRF-2 is a companion to the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency–Second Edition (TOSWRF-2). While the TOSWRF-2 measures a student's ability to recognise individual words accurately and efficiently, the TOSCRF-2 measures a student's essential contextual reading abilities (i.e., word identification, word meaning, word building, sentence structure, comprehension, and fluency).
New Features of the TOSCRF-2
- Normative information was extended upward to include ages 19-0 through 24-11.
- New normative data were collected between 2009-2012.
- Co-normed with the TOSWRF-2 and TWS-5.
- Practice form administration time was decreased to one minute.
- Administration instructions were updated to expand the use of TOSWRF-2, particularly with deaf and hard-of-hearing students.
- A Supplemental Administration and Scoring Instruction booklet is now included for greater convenience in school-wide universal screening applications.
- Practice effects have been addressed.
- Evidence for validity has been expanded to include studies by independent researchers as well as by the test authors.
Description of the TOSCRF-2
The TOSCRF-2 is a quick and accurate method of assessing the silent general reading ability of students ranging in age from 7 years 0 months to 24 years 11 months. It has a test manual and four equivalent forms (A, B, C, D). The TOSCRF-2 was normed using a national representative sample of 2,375 individuals, residing in 29 states. It yields raw scores, standard scores, percentiles, and age and year equivalents. Classroom teachers, special education teachers, reading specialists, educational psychologists, speech & language therapists, or any other professionals with some training in standardised test administration can use the TOSCRF-2.
Using a series of printed passages adapted from those in the Gray Oral Reading Tests–Fifth Edition and the Gray Silent Reading Tests, the TOSCRF can be used to identify both poor and good readers. Students are presented with short passages comprised of rows of contextually related words, ordered by reading difficulty; all words are printed in uppercase without any spaces or punctuation between the words (e.g., AYELLOWBIRDWITHBLUEWINGS).
Students are asked to draw a line between the boundaries of as many recognisable words as possible within 3 minutes (e.g., A/YELLOW/BIRD/WITH/BLUE/WINGS). The passages become gradually more complex in their content, vocabulary, and grammar (embedded phrases, sequenced adjectives, affixes, etc.). To do well on the test, the student has to read the meaning of the text. The test can be easily administered to a single student or to an entire classroom of children, thus making it an efficient and cost-effective screening method.
Any one of the four equivalent forms (A, B, C, and D) may be administered to a single child or an entire classroom of children, depending on the purpose of the assessment. While most uses require only a single form administration, you may administer any two forms concurrently to increase reliability. A single form can be administered in 3 minutes and two forms can be administered in 6 minutes.
New validity studies for TOSCRF-2 show that it is valid for a wide variety of subgroups, as well as for the general population. In addition, we have expanded our study of the test’s validity by investigating its diagnostic accuracy as it relates to its sensitivity, specificity, classification accuracy, and receiver operating characteristic/area under the curve (ROC/AUC). These analyses are particularly rigorous, evidence-based techniques for establishing validity.
The TOSCRF-2 can be used to:
- Identify students with comprehension and general reading difficulties and document the degree of their problems.
- Screen large numbers of students at once.
- Monitor student progress up to four times per year.
- Research the nature of reading difficulties.