by Richard R. Abidin, EdD, Timothy R. Konold, PhD
Qualification Level: E (Teacher/Other Professional)
Purpose: Measure the strength of the child-rearing alliance between parents of children ages 1-19 years
Age: 1 through to 19 years
Time: 10 minutes to administer; 5 minutes to score
The PAM is a useful screening and diagnostic instrument for family counseling, joint custody evaluations, identification of dysfunctional parenting skills, and assessing the impact of intervention. The PAM was standardised on 1,224 parents of children from the general population and a clinical sample of 272 parents of children diagnosed with ADHD, CD, ODD, or other problems.
- The only measure that assesses the parenting aspects of a couple's relationship.
- Provides you with the parents' perspective of how cooperative, communicative, and mutually respectful they are with regard to caring for their child(ren).
- Quick and easy for parents to complete (10 minutes).
- Easy to score (5 minutes).
- Appropriate for a variety of parenting partners (e.g., married, divorced, unmarried).
- Appropriate for parents of children ages 1-19 years.
The PAM is highly reliable, with an internal consistency of .97. The test-retest reliability after a 4- to 6-week period was .80. Validity studies show the PAM to be correlated in the expected directions with measures of parenting stress, family and marital functioning, children's social skills and psychosocial adjustment, and other parent characteristics.
The PAM materials consist of the Professional Manual and a self-scoring 20-item PAM Test Form written at an 8 year reading level. Once the parent has completed the test form, the administrator peels back the top page to reveal the scoring page. Both T scores and percentile scores can be used to determine the strength of the parenting alliance. Separate norms are available for fathers and mothers.
The PAM Professional Manual provides information on the PAM materials, administration, scoring, interpretation, development, and psychometric characteristics. It includes summaries of the content, convergent, and discriminant validity studies. The Appendixes include the raw score to percentile and raw score to T-score conversion table.