by Gerard A. Gioia, PhD, Kimberly Andrews Espy, PhD, Peter K. Isquith, PhD
The BRIEF-P is the first standardised measure of executive functioning available for the preschool-aged child!
Qualification Level: A (Psychologist)
Purpose: Assess executive functioning in preschool-aged children ages
Age Range: 2 through to 5.11 yrs
Time: Approximately 10-15 minutes to administer; 15-20 minutes to score
Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®
The observations of parents and teachers provide a wealth of information about a child's behaviour that is directly relevant to an understanding of that child's executive functioning. The assessment of executive function in preschool-aged children is often difficult because of the variable nature of behaviour in this age range (ages 2.0-5.11 years); the limitations in motor and verbal proficiency at this age; and the many neuropsychological, psychological, developmental, and other medical conditions that begin to manifest during the preschool years. The BRIEF-P is the first standardised rating scale designed to specifically measure the range of behavioural manifestations of executive function in preschool-aged children--thus facilitating intervention at earlier stages of development.
The BRIEF-P consists of a single Rating Form used by parents, teachers, and day care providers to rate a child's executive functions within the context of his/her everyday environments--home and preschool. The original Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function™ (BRIEF™) was the basis for the development of the BRIEF-P. Consequently, the BRIEF-P is an ecologically valid and efficient tool for screening, assessing, and monitoring a young child's executive functioning and development.
The hand-scorable BRIEF-P Rating Form consists of 63 items that measure various aspects of executive functioning: Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Working Memory, and Plan/Organise. The clinical scales form three broad indexes (Inhibitory Self-Control, Flexibility, and Emergent Metacognition) and one composite score (Global Executive Composite). The BRIEF-P also provides two validity scales (Inconsistency and Negativity).
- High internal consistency reliability (.80-.95 for parent sample and .90-.97 for teacher sample); test-retest reliability (.78-.90 for parents and .64-.94 for teachers); and modest correlations between parent and teacher ratings (.14-.28).
- Convergent and discriminant validity was demonstrated with other measures of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, atypicality, anxiety, and somatic complaints (i.e., ADHD Rating Scale-IV, Preschool Version; Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5; Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scale).
- Factor analytic studies provide support for the three-factor model of executive functioning as embodied by the three indexes, which accounted for 87% and 92% of the variance in the parent and teacher normative groups, respectively. The Working Memory and the Plan/Organise scales define the first component; the Shift and Emotional Control scales define the second component; and the Inhibit and Emotional Control scales define the third component.
- Normative data is based on child ratings from 460 parents and 302 teachers from urban, suburban, and rural areas, reflecting 1999 U.S. Census estimates for race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age.
- Clinical samples included children in the following diagnostic/clinical groups: ADHD, prematurity, language disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and mixed clinical.
- The BRIEF-P is useful in assessing preschool-aged children with such medical, acquired neurological, and developmental conditions as prematurity, emerging learning difficulties and attentional disorders, language disorders, traumatic brain injuries, lead exposure, and pervasive developmental disorders/autism.