by Thomas M. Brunner, PhD and Charles D. Spielberger, PhD
Qualification Level: A (Psychologist)
The STAXI-2 C/A is a 35-item self-report measure designed to detect anger in children and adolescents ages 9-18 years. Based on the adult version of the instrument, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), the STAXI-2 C/A is sensitive to the developmental aspects of anger in children. Like its parent version, the STAXI-2 C/A assesses both state and trait anger along with anger expression and control. The STAXI-2 C/A expression and control scales assess important dimensions that facilitate the evaluation and the subsequent placement of children with specific problem behaviours into groups based on distinguishable temperaments and/or externalising or suppressive coping styles.
Special Features of the STAXI-2 C/A
- Distinguishes temporary anger states from more trait-like or enduring conditions (e.g., whether a temper tantrum is a hallmark of an emotionally intense trait vs. a transient state-like event).
- Enhances the ability to assess and diagnose the spectrum of conditions in which anger intensity as an emotional state is important (e.g., bipolar disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, reactive attachment disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder).
- Assesses the degree to which a child is reactive only to specific negative events or is more generally reactive to diverse environmental events.
- Assesses a child's habitual anger coping style as either externalising or internalising (i.e., suppressive).
- Assists in the determination of whether key aspects of a child's anger profile may be related to problems with his or her health status (e.g., problems exacerbated by intense and/or frequent anger suppression).
- Written at a 9 year reading level, the STAXI-2 C/A Rating Booklet is tailored for use by children and adolescents.
- Reflects the 2007 U.S. Census population parameters via a post-stratification weighting procedure that was applied to the STAXI-2 C/A normative sample of 838 state school children and adolescents.
- Provides raw score to percentile and T-score conversions for the STAXI-2 C/A scales and subscales for both the total normative sample and the six normative age-by-gender groups.
- Presents discriminant and convergent validity based on correlations with the Achenbach Youth Self-Report (YSR) DSM-Oriented and Syndrome scales for the normative sample and a clinical sample.
The STAXI-2 C/A may be used as part of the diagnostic process, as a tool for monitoring the long-term effects anger may have on children and adolescents, and as a complement to threat assessment measures and procedures in a variety of settings.
|Overview of the STAXI-2 C/A Scales and Subscales|
|State Anger (S-Ang)||Measures the intensity of angry feelings and the extent to which a youth feels like expressing anger at a particular time.|
|Measures the intensity of the angry feelings a youth is currently experiencing.|
|Measures the intensity of current feelings related to verbal or physical expressions of anger.|
|Trait Anger (T-Ang)||Measures how often angry feelings are experienced over time.|
|Measures the disposition to experience anger without specific provocation.|
|Measures the frequency that angry feelings are experienced in situations that involve frustration and/or negative evaluation.|
|Anger Expression-Out (AX-O)||Measures how often angry feelings are expressed in verbally or physically aggressive behaviour.|
|Anger Expression-In (AX-I)||Measures how often angry feelings are experienced but not expressed|
|Anger Control (AC)||Measures how often a youth tries to control the inward or outward expression of angry feelings.|