by Seymour Epstein, PhD
Qualification Level: A (Psychologist)
Purpose: Measure beliefs and thinking patterns that underlie emotional intelligence, coping ability, physical and emotional well-being
Age: 18 through to 80 years
Admin: Individual or group
Time: 15-30 minutes
The CTI is a 108-item self-report inventory that assesses constructive and destructive beliefs and thinking patterns. The CTI is based on Dr. Epstein's Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory. According to this theory, people have two fundamental adaptive systems: an "experiential system" that automatically learns from lived experience, and a "rational/intellectual system" that operates by conscious reasoning. The CTI measures the efficacy of the experiential system; intelligence tests measure the efficacy of the rational/intellectual system. Note that the CTI cannot be hand-scored. The individual's responses are entered into the software, and the program scores the protocol and automatically generates a score report with raw scores and gender-based T scores with a profile of the results.
The CTI predicts a variety of desirable abilities/states, that are either unrelated or only very weakly related to intellectual intelligence, including work performance, social skills, and emotional and physical well-being. It has also been found that CTI scores significantly supplement intellectual intelligence in the prediction of academic performance as measured by grade point average.
- 5-point rating scale.
- Appropriate for ages 18-80 years.
- Normative sample of 908 U.S. census-matched adults.
- Gender-based raw score to T-score conversions provided for all scales/subscales and for the Global Constructive Thinking Scale.
- Computer scoring program that generates a score report and a profile of the results.
The CTI scales provide information about beliefs and thinking processes at three levels of generality. A global scale (Global Constructive Thinking), composed of items from several other scales, is the most general score. At the next level are six main scales (Emotional Coping, Behavioural Coping, Personal Superstitious Thinking, Categorical Thinking, Esoteric Thinking, and Naive Optimism) that measure basic ways in which people think (constructively or destructively). Almost all main scales have subscales, which identify the specific thoughts and ways of thinking that make up the main scales. This information is useful for elucidating the scores on the main scales, for providing refined diagnoses, and, most important, for counselling and psychotherapy geared toward correcting maladaptive beliefs and ways of thinking. The CTI also includes Validity and Defensiveness scales. Scores are provided for the Global Constructive Thinking Scale, 6 scales, and 15 subscales.
The CTI Has Many Uses
The CTI is widely applicable. In clinical and counselling settings, it can be used to obtain diagnostic information about beliefs and ways of thinking that can be directly applied in psychotherapy and counselling. In this respect, the CTI has been particularly useful in treatment centres for drug abuse that emphasise the development of coping skills. In business settings, the CTI can be used for personnel selection and for training and counselling at all administrative levels. In educational settings, it can assist in the selection of students for university admissions and in the counselling of secondary school and university students.
Requirements: Windows® 2000/XP/Vista™; NTFS file system; CD-ROM drive for installation; Internet connection or telephone for software activation and counter update.